A marathon is a test of endurance athletics Olympic category that consists of run on foot the distance of 42,195 meters. Besides being an Olympic activity, is also performed in cities like Washington, San Francisco, Mexico, New York, etc.
In those days when there were no great technologies like today for travel and sending messages, packages, etc., Was a man named Philippides whose job was a "runner messenger" because due to its high resistance was able to run long distances to carry very important messages from one zone to another. Undoubtedly, the most famous race and the one that has given worldwide fame occurred during the Battle of Marathon, in which he had to travel more than 40 miles to get help from the Spartans, as the Persian army exceeded so significantly to the Greeks. From this legendary race and to remember it was created "Spartathlon", one of the major sporting events of all taking place in Athens every year, because of its great historical and cultural weight. It began to make since 1982 and is a journey where participants have water and food besides rest every 4 miles. There are control points and a time limit for each of them since might otherwise be eliminated, this is one of the greatest legends that have Greece and everyone knows more or less because it was a historical fact and thus was born the marathon distance traveled similar to that at the time this soldier messenger.
At the start line, runners take place without a predetermined order. The competition begins when the gun fires start. As in other tests, two false starts imply disqualification. As in the other races, the winner is the first participant whose upper body cross the finish line. Does not exist in the marathon qualifying events, all competitors participate in a single race.
The course must be on streets, although it is permissible to use bike paths or trails.
Must be provided for hydration stations every 5 km, competitors cannot get drinks out of these positions, but they can be provided with their own drinks and indicate in what position they want to be delivered , also, drinking water stations and sponges for cooling must be provided in the sections between the posts of hydration. Doesn’t exist restriction on the amount of drink that a runner can take, but they are not allowed to drink from outside the posts already determined.
Any rider who receives outside assistance is automatically disqualified, an exception, added to the rules after 1984, allows a medical examination by authorized medical personnel, if the medical officer determines that an athlete is unable to continue, the athlete should be removed from competition.
This last rule was added after the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984, the U.S. (representing Switzerland because of his dual nationality) Gabriele Andersen-Scheiss reached the finish exhausted but refusing medical help within 5 minutes 44 seconds that took to travel the last 400 meters.